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西安进口不锈钢需要注意的问题

日期:2024-05-16 01:47
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摘要:<p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">西安</span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">进口不锈钢需要注意的问题</span> </span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;">西安<span style="font-family:宋体;">使用的不锈钢材料分进口与国产两种,国产材料,由于使用的是欧洲(</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">ISO</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">)体系,用成分表示,比较直观,不容易发生问题,现在大家重点谈谈进口不锈钢的一些需要注意的问题: </span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;">1<span style="font-family:宋体;">、材料标准 </span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">现在,大家经常见到的进口不锈钢标准有美国</span>ASME<span style="font-family:宋体;">标准的</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">SA240</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">ASTM</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">标准的</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">A240</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">以及日本</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">JIS</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">标准的</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">SUS</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">;经常使用的牌号为</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304L</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">316L</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">等。下面以</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">为例来说明它们的表示方法:</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">JIS</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">标准中材料,表示比较简单,就是</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">SUS304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">这样表示;</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">ASME</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">及</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">ASTM</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">的表示有几种:</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">SA240-304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">SA240TP304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">A240-304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">A240TP304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">,实际上,中间加</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">-</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">与加</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">TP</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">的意思是一样的。大家提到前面有</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304L</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">的材料,其中</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">L</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">为后缀,表示含碳量较低;经常可以看到的还有</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">H</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">,表示含碳量较高,主要使用在温度较高的场合;另外常见的还有</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">N</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">,表示加元素</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">N</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">,提高强度。有时候,大家还可以在后面见到:</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">2B</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">,</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">No.1</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">等后缀,这些后缀表示的是材料的表面状态;</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">2B</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">表示热轧加冷轧后,表面较好,达到镜面要求的</span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">钢板</span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">;</span>2D<span style="font-family:宋体;">表示热轧加冷轧后,表面一般的钢板;</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">No.1</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">表示热轧表面。 </span></span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><br /> </span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;">2<span style="font-family:宋体;">、关于材料的代用 </span></span> </p> <p style="margin:0pt;"> <span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">在许多人心目中,材料</span>“<span style="font-family:宋体;">以高代低、以厚代薄</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">”</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">是天经地义的事情,不需要多管,实际上这种观点是错误的,下面大家以</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304L</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">、</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304H</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">为例来进行说明:一般来看,</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304L</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">比</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">有更低的含碳量,更好的耐腐蚀性,因此可以代替</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">材料使用。确实</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304L</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">满足</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">的要求,而且比</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">更好,好像可以自动替代</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">,但从力学性能看,</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">的强度比</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304L</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">高,当按</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">设计时,用</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304L</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">替代,就会造成强度不够;另外,在我国压力容器标准</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">GB150-1998</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">中</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">4.1.6</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">条规定:奥氏体不锈钢的使用温度高于</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">525</span></span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;">℃</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-size:10.5pt;mso-spacerun:&quot;yes&quot;;mso-font-kerning:1.0000pt;mso-fareast-font-family:宋体;"><span style="font-family:宋体;">时,钢中含碳量应不小于</span>0.04%<span style="font-family:宋体;">。因此,认为</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304L</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">可以代替</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">304</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">使用的观点是错误的,能不能使用与使用场合有关,而且按照容规规定,大家都没有权进行</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">“</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">材料代用</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">”</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">,只有原设计部门才可以有权进行</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">"</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">材料代用</span><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">"</span><span style="font-family:宋体;">的工作。</span></span> </p>

西安进口不锈钢需要注意的问题

西安使用的不锈钢材料分进口与国产两种,国产材料,由于使用的是欧洲(ISO)体系,用成分表示,比较直观,不容易发生问题,现在大家重点谈谈进口不锈钢的一些需要注意的问题:
1、材料标准
现在,大家经常见到的进口不锈钢标准有美国ASME标准的SA240ASTM标准的A240以及日本JIS标准的SUS;经常使用的牌号为304304L316L等。下面以304为例来说明它们的表示方法:JIS标准中材料,表示比较简单,就是SUS304这样表示;ASMEASTM的表示有几种:SA240-304SA240TP304A240-304A240TP304,实际上,中间加-与加TP的意思是一样的。大家提到前面有304L的材料,其中L为后缀,表示含碳量较低;经常可以看到的还有H,表示含碳量较高,主要使用在温度较高的场合;另外常见的还有N,表示加元素N,提高强度。有时候,大家还可以在后面见到:2BNo.1等后缀,这些后缀表示的是材料的表面状态;2B表示热轧加冷轧后,表面较好,达到镜面要求的钢板2D表示热轧加冷轧后,表面一般的钢板;No.1表示热轧表面。
2、关于材料的代用

在许多人心目中,材料以高代低、以厚代薄是天经地义的事情,不需要多管,实际上这种观点是错误的,下面大家以304304L304H为例来进行说明:一般来看,304L304有更低的含碳量,更好的耐腐蚀性,因此可以代替304材料使用。确实304L满足304的要求,而且比304更好,好像可以自动替代304,但从力学性能看,304的强度比304L高,当按304设计时,用304L替代,就会造成强度不够;另外,在我国压力容器标准GB150-19984.1.6条规定:奥氏体不锈钢的使用温度高于525时,钢中含碳量应不小于0.04%。因此,认为304L可以代替304使用的观点是错误的,能不能使用与使用场合有关,而且按照容规规定,大家都没有权进行材料代用,只有原设计部门才可以有权进行"材料代用"的工作。

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